What is a Peristaltic Pump? Definition, Parts, Types, Working, Uses


This abstract represents the advanced technology adopted in biomimetics and living nature and highlights the functional and structural dissimilarities, benefits, and limitations for technical implementation regarding peristaltic pumps.

The advancement of these biomimetic pumping systems impersonates the biological principle and comes to its advantages, usability in various pumping applications, and research and development in medical science.

What is a Peristaltic Pump? Definition

Peristaltic Pump Basics

This peristaltic word is from Greek peristellum, which means ‘”warp around to move.” This is explained as the muscle activity of hollow tube organs.

what peristaltic pump definition parts types working uses basics
What peristaltic pump definition parts types working uses basics

Three manners can do peristalsis pumping.

  • Propagative forward peristalsis
  • Propagative backward peristalsis
  • Non-propagative peristalsis

The peristaltic principle has been known since the early 17th century by Le Clerc and Marget and Marpager.

The very first technical peristaltic pump was patented in the USA by Eugene Allen in 1881 for blood transfusion.

The advancement of fluid transport peristaltic pumping systems plays a vital role in the primary mass and heat transfer for regulating the biological organization and technical structure.

Definition of Peristaltic Pump

A peristaltic pump is another type of positive displacement pump which transfers a wide range of fluid. The fluid is kept in a flexible tube which is mounted inside a circular pump casing; the absence of valves seals make this pump inexpensive and easy for maintenance generally, peristaltic pumps come with their flexible features, and that makes them operate in an open flow path which gives high resistance to abrasion and permits the easy flow of viscus media or fluid.

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Mechanism of Peristaltic Pump

How Does Peristaltic Pump Work?

The peristaltic pump works based on moving a product through a hose by compressing and decompressing. Later on, the fluid passes through the pump with the help of the ‘shoe’ of the pump, which is fixed over the pump’s rotor.

how does peristaltic pump work working procedure
how does peristaltic pump work working procedure

The fluid is flown through the tubing by rollers that rotate and compress a flexible tube against the pump case.

As the roller flows over the tubing, it is large and creates a vacuum which allows more fluid to suck, while for success, this operation minimum of one roller closes the tubing. Hence it provides valve less operation, and this roller may revolve with the help of a gearbox and a motor.

Framework of Peristaltic Pump

For an ideal peristaltic have a large possible roller diameter and infinite diameter of the pump head. This makes the pump tubing life longer and provides a constant free flow rate. Hence an ideal peristaltic pump may not be designed in reality. Therefore, manufacturers desire the peristaltic pump to achieve these parameters.

Types of Peristaltic Pump

Peristaltic pump further divided into three-way: –

  • Hose pump
  • Microfluidic pump
  • Tube pump

Hose Pump

It is another type of rotary positive displacement pump that comes with a simple design, including several hoses squeezed via rollers or shoe rotating fluid from the inlet to the outlet of the pump.

Working of hose pump

The hose pump includes a hose, roller, and rotter. The hose fed in a U-shape around the housing transfers the liquid by clamping the fluid from rollers, which turn rotter. The motion of the rotter causes the trapped point to transfer along with the hose. Inside the media, transfer the fluid from the pump’s inlet to the pump’s outlet.

peristaltic hose pump definition parts types working uses
Peristaltic hose pump definition parts types working uses

Benefits of hose pump

  • Design is very simple
  • It has great flexibility
  • Very easy to maintenance
  • The pump’s hose is generally made of commonly available material; hence its replacement cost is very low.
  • This type of pump can run in dry conditions, and lubrication is done outside the pump.

Tube pumps

Tube pumps are well known for lower pressure peristaltic pumps, and their casing is dry along with the roller. This type of pump uses a roller for compressing the tube. These types of pumps are more often used in laboratories and benchtops. These pumps can move a wide range of fluid from the high head; hence they may also be used in heavy-duty operations.

peristaltic tube pump definition parts types working uses
Peristaltic tube pump definition parts types working uses

Peristaltic pumps roller may further be categorized into two types: –

  • Fixed occlusion
  • Spring-loaded roller

Fixed occlusion

This type of pump implies that the roller is fixed in a certain axis to move, and by constantly compressing the tube, it provides constant occlusion. The design of this pump is quite simple and effective. In this type of pump, the occlusion percentage depends on the wall thickness of the tube.

A tube having greater wall thickness with acceptable tolerance has the highest occlusion percentage, which deploys the tubing life by wearing the surface of the tube.

Spring-loaded roller

The roller may be fitted on a spring in this type of pump. This type of design helps to overcome the variation in the wall thickness of the tube. The spring is chosen to control the pressure of the pumped fluid and also maintain the hoop strength of the tubing.

Characteristics of the tube pump

  • It can operate on low pressure.
  • Putting large numbers of the roller may cause the wear of tubing and shorten the life of the tube.
  • It uses the roller for compressing the tube.

Microfluidic pump

A device that contains a micro-size channel that allows fluid flow for the microfluidic experiment is known as a microfluidic pump.

peristaltic microfluidic pump definition parts types working uses
Peristaltic microfluidic pump definition parts types working uses

The microfluidic pump may use in various field

  • Robotic
  • Food industries
  • Dynamic cell culture

Here various types of the microfluidic pump are used, and they are

  • Syringe pump
  • Microfluidic precision pump

Syringe pump

A syringe pump uses the mechanical action on a plunge to induce the force on a syringe that contains the fluid. Due to the movement of the plunger, the fluid starts to move from the syringe nozzle through the tube into the microfluidic device. The plunger movement can be controlled by the screw, which will be tuned as required in different experiments.

Microfluidic precision pump

This type of pump is used in all experiments where precision equipment like micro-control devices is used. This type of pump uses external force to move the fluid sealed in the tube. The pneumatic force induces the gas pressure, allowing the fluid to move through the tube into the microfluidic device.

In this device, the liquid flow rate is directly proportional to the pressure difference.

Characteristics of peristaltic pump

We know that ever being a product can push, i.e., mainly acidic, rough, or thick. Hence this type of pump helps to perform excellently in the above condition.

These pumps are very cheap due to the absence of seals, valves, and diaphragms. These pumps are more worthy for shear-responsive polymers.

Assembly and cleaning of surfaces inside the pump are quite easy.

  • This type of pump comes with more often designed and fewer seals.
  • The protection cost of this pump is very cheap.
  • These types of pumps may run in dry conditions.
  • It is self-priming
  • Gentle pushing operations can be performed.
  • The suction pickup is very high.
  • These are scratch-proof.
  • Reversible
  • Clean.

Uses of Peristatic Pump

The application of peristaltic pumps covers a wide area where liquid meets to flow under fresh and germ-free circumstances.

  • Infusion pump
  • Analytical chemistry testing pump
  • Aquariums
  • Pharmaceutical production
  • Open heart bypass equipment’s
  •  Auto analyzer
  • Beverage supply equipment.
  • Exclusion of dirt
  • Decorative waterfalls and mountain
  • Industrial dishwasher clean and machines
  • Dialysis equipment
  • Carbon monoxide observer
  • Food manufacturing
  • Chemical handling
  • Water and wastewater treatment
  • Engineering and manufacturing
  • Paper industries

Benefits of Peristaltic Pump

  • In this type of peristaltic pump, pollution generation is zero because one element connected with the fluid may be pushed towards the center of the tube. Hence extra care is very easy to clean the inside of the pump.
  • It does not need extra care. Therefore, this needs less protection,
  • The absence of valve seal glands makes these pumps cheaper.
  • These types of pumps are reliable to operate with viscus, slurry fluid.
  • It resists the backflow due to its construction design resisting the fluid to backflow.
  • Its operations and controls are quite different, like touch control foot paddle control.
  • This type of pump is very easy to use.

Discriminates of Peristaltic Pump

  • These types of pumps are less efficient where there is a need for continuous flow.
  • Due to the flexible tube may collapse over some time, hence the need for periodic and routine maintenance.
  • It has pulsed flow hence not reliable for smooth flow
  • As for passes of time, the flow rate may slow down due to regular compressing of the pump

Parameters affecting for selecting a peristaltic pump

Here are the few major parameters listed below by which we can easily select the peristaltic pump. They are: –

  • Duty cycle
  • Flow rate
  • Pressure
  • Suction conditions
  • Pump media
  • Temperature
  • Cleaning requirements
  • Contaminations
  • Maintenance aspects

Duty cycle

If we need to perform the pump for a long time, we need to pay attention to the pump’s duty cycle. Because the pump operates over time at a certain speed, it may shorten the pump’s life. Hence the manufacturer listed the details with their performance curve.

Flow rate

the performance of the pump may also depend on the flow rate. Generally, pumps are categorized with their flow rate dealing with various viscous fluids and their suction head. The manufacturer is also listed on the chart with them.

Pressure

As we know, every pump has its pressure strength and performs around them, but a good pump design enables them to work around the pressure to 15 bar. This will be achieved through the hoses rated to work on this pressure, the rollers, and the other components. Manufacture is listed in the details on what pressure the particular pump will work, their speed limitations, and the pump’s flow rate.

Suction condition

Here we read above that the peristaltic pumps can work with a high suction head, and as working on a high suction head, there will be vibration or pulsation to overcome with this manufacturer mounting the pulsation damper on it. Hence, we need to shorten the suction il.

Pump media

To extend pumping life, we need to choose proper pumping material. Few pumping materials are as follows: –

  • The most common material used for the hose is natural isoprene used for more aggressive fluids. And this will come with a higher pressure rating.
  • For food products, natural isoprene with the substrate is used. These hoses come with the FDA approval numbers, which will be perfect for transporting food products.
  • These hoses are also used for a wide range of chemicals
  •  For food products like oil and fats, NBR hoses are used. This hose also comes with FDA approval numbers.
  • Polyvinyl chloride
  • Silicon rubber
  • thermoplastic

Temperature limitations

Performance temperature plays a vital role in products because exceeding the temperature limit may cause operation failure. Hence operating temperature should not exceed the temperature rating of the hose. The manufacturer also indicates the temperature limit on the performance chart.  

Cleaning requirements

The selection of the hose provides us to see the need for the hose to be cleaned in the place or sterilized in place.

Contaminations

While operating an operation, product contamination is always a risk. To overcome this issue, we need to define a proper peristaltic pump with a roller instead of a shoe. Because the pump has shoes that need a casing filled with lubrication oil, the lubricating oil may contaminate the pumped product when the hose starts to decay.

Maintenance

As we studied above, a peristaltic pump does not acquire extra or heavy maintenance apart from hose change. Because the design of the pump allows us to save time and money too. In the aspects of the roller, pumps do not need a casing full of lubricating oil, and there is no need to drain and refill the oil during hose change.

The pump has a roller with bearings that allow early leak detection, which also helps to reduce maintenance costs. This will happen because the “plunger -in-cap” designed leak detector can pick up hose failure earlier.

High Rated Course for Pump

There are many courses on pump cavitation available on the web to learn with video tutorials. You can grab them as these are very helpful to clear the concept from the core with very less price.

Few of them are illustrated based on the highest rating as well as feedback:

Centrifugal pumps: Principles, Operation and Design

Centrifugal Pump Basics (Mechanical Engineering & HVAC)

Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps (HVAC and Engineering)

Conclusion

After reading this article, we can easily determine what type of peristaltic pump is needed for particular operations. This pump also provides constant and adequate pumping action to deliver precise fluid to the system. It is also made appropriate by delivering or operating with dirty fluids or trapped gases.

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