What is Solar Water Pump? Definition, Parts, Types, Diagram, Working, Uses

Hydraulic engineers have been using solar water pump for some time. Solar pumps can also be called solar-driven pumps. Solar water pump systems can be used in residential and even commercial applications, and can be used to irrigate heavily infested agricultural land. Designed to run on free solar power from the sun, the solar pump eliminates the need for electricity and offers a more practical option for moving water. 

Mechanics is relatively new to the concept of solar water pumps. Residential and commercial solar water pump systems are common, as well as agricultural irrigation systems. Using solar panels as a power source, the pump can economize on energy costs and provide a more practical option for pumping water that uses the sun’s energy.

What is Solar Water Pump? Definition

A solar pump operates using solar energy, as their name implies. When compared to normal water pumps, solar pumps are very robust, easy to install, require very little maintenance, and are very expensive. Their lifespan is approximately 20 years. It is necessary to clean the solar panels once in a while. Generally, pumps of this type are used when electricity is not available or where there is a power outage.  

what solar water pump definition parts types diagram working uses

Pumps are used in many industries, from agriculture to the energy industry. Pumps work primarily on the principle of positive displacement, adding kinetic energy to the water’s movement.

Parts of Solar Water Pump

Solar panel, controller, motor and Water pumps are the main components of solar pumping systems. According to their motor’s strength, solar water pumping systems are categorized into direct current or alternating current. In addition to brushless DC pumping water applications, brushless DC motors were presented in recent years.

Water Pump

Solar water pumps also include a water pump, which is one of the most important components. You wouldn’t have a solar water pump if it wasn’t for the pump. Water pumps are pieces of equipment that pull water from a source for use in various applications. Wells, ponds, and other sources of water can be used for irrigation and agriculture.

Both AC and DC pumps are available from Advanced Power Systems. The solar water pumps collection includes submersible pumps, circulation pumps, booster pumps, and sump pumps. These pumps are capable of lifting water to great depths. The right pump should be chosen according to your needs.


The performance of solar pump systems can be maximized. Water pumps can be controlled by controllers. Water pumps can be operated more efficiently with Advanced Power’s controllers. You can use a controller to set a pumping schedule, turn on or off the pump, and help your pump last longer. Controllers with water sensors will turn off the pup when water levels fall or if the water source is dry.

solar water pump parts
solar water pump parts

If you are pumping from a well or source that is often dry or low on water, this controller will work for you. This allows wells or sources of water to replenish before pumping is restarted. Using a controller can improve the performance and efficiency of your pumps.

Solar Panel

Solar water pump systems produce electricity using the photovoltaic effect. By absorbing sun photons, solar panels convert them into energy. These panels are the main component of solar water pumps. Solar panels are arranged in arrays. Solar panels at Advanced Power are made from durable material, which will ensure they last for years to come. Although the solar pump system uses this component to generate electricity, other important components of the water pump system are also crucial. 


You should also consider a motor when investing in a solar water pump system. DC is converted into AC, which can be used to power electrical grids and off-grid systems. Motors are required for many electrical devices, including the water pumps, making them an integral part of any solar pump system. When you need backup power, the motor is a great choice. Even without solar, a motor can enable you to run your water pump on cloudy or low-light days.  

Diagram of Solar Water Pump

Solar pumps are primarily composed of a solar panel, water pump, electric motor, and controller. Essentially, this pump is an electrical pump, and it works by using the electricity it receives from the solar panel system. It stores this energy in these solar panels. Direct current (AC) or alternating current (DC) is managed by the electric motor. This system uses a controller to control the output power and speed.  

How Does Solar Water Pump Works?

An electric water pump powered by solar cells or photovoltaic or PV cells in solar panels generates electricity. These solar PV panels convert sunlight into direct current electricity when exposed to sunlight. 

The DC power flows into a control box, which controls the electricity used to operate the motor pumps. Voltage fluctuations are also protected by the control box.

How does solar water pump works
How does solar water pump works

Irrigating fields is accomplished by pumping water from other bodies of water, such as a pond, canal, open well, bore well, etc.

Unlike electricity-powered water pumps, solar water pumps run off of solar panels directly and do not need batteries to operate. That is an interesting way to use water pumps with no batteries involved. Rather than storing electricity in batteries, it is more practical to keep water in a holding tank.

Solar pumps can run for longer during periods of low sunlight by using linear current boosters. These devices change additional voltage to necessary current during daylight hours.

Efficiency of Solar Water Pump

It takes an adequate sized storage tank to make solar pumping economically viable, as they rarely run between sunset and sunrise. But many solar pumps produce less than 6 gallons per minute and do not pump between sunset and sunrise. In contrast with AC pumps that use large quantities of energy, solar powered water pumps are able to produce an equal amount of water per day.

The solar water pump is designed to operate slowly and efficiently all day instead of pumping a large volume of water quickly and then turning off. Solar pumps can often be used in wells with recovery rates too slow for conventional AC pumps.

Whenever possible, consider solar pumping systems for any water sources that are distant from power lines. This will save you from having to use a generator, which would have continuous fuel and maintenance costs, or to rely on utility power-line extensions. The use of solar pumping to provide clean water to remote villages around the world is becoming increasingly popular among non-profits and NGOs.

It is simply the output of energy for a given surface area that is measured with solar panels’ efficiency. As panels get more efficient, they will take up less space on your roof. Solar panels with high efficiencies may not always be the best choice for cost-effectiveness.

Calculation of Solar Water Pump

The power output of the PV modules should be at least twenty percent greater than the power required by the pump to achieve the desired head and flow rate if you are using a pump driven by PV modules. By increasing the number of arrays or using a tracking system, the pump can provide more gallons per day.

Although you are over sizing the array, the pump is undamaged since it only draws the energy it needs. With a larger array, the pumps will have more pumping time and volume in the morning, afternoon, and on cloudy days, as they will produce more power with less light. 

An array of one kW could produce 200 W in one-fifth the time that you would need on a sunny day at noon.

For you and many others to understand how solar energy can directly benefit you, you should consider the efficiency of the panels you choose, but this does not mean you will experience higher economic benefits.

Types of Solar Water Pumps

Surface solar water pump

Surface solar pumps can draw water up to 20 feet vertically using suction. nevertheless, once they lift, relatively small pumps can push water a great distance, like 200 feet or more. suitable for shallow wells, ponds, streams, or storage tanks, such pumps are a good option. the water supply should be less than 20 feet from the surface area.

Submersible solar water pump

When the source of water is located more than 20 feet below the surface, such pumping systems can lift the water up to 650 feet. they fit in a well casing of 4 inches or larger and can lift water up to 650 feet. submersible solar pumps can lift vertical distances of up to 700 feet if the water level is below 20 feet and the solar pump is required to lift more than that.

They can operate directly from solar panels, batteries, or an ac power source in some instances. this type of pump is greatly use in domestic purpose where people need water & store them in tank for future use.

AC solar pump

An inverter converts the dc generated by the panels to ac, which is how this motor works. consequently, power is lost during production and utilization.  

DC solar pump

This type of pump is powered by direct current, so an inverter or battery is not required.

several volts of dc power can be used to power solar submersible pumps, such as 6v, 12v, 24v, or 32v.

Difference between DC & AC solar pump

Since dc-powered pumps run on direct current, the solar power does not need to be converted into ac power. pumps powered by dc are generally 20%-40% more efficient than those powered by ac. today, however, this difference in efficiency is less significant than it used to be due to the low cost of solar panels. in addition, there are pumps that can be powered both by dc and by ac power.

Direct current has a number of advantages over alternating current. first, submersible pumps can be powered by other power options, such as batteries, because the system uses dc power. the pumps are easier to use and more portable with dc power.

Maintenance of solar Water pump

The energy savings of solar pumps are justified on a long-term basis. compared to diesel engines and even electric motors, they require little to no maintenance. the life of the engine is relatively longer as well. solar panels require the most maintenance, mostly cleaning.  as dust and dirt can affect the efficiency of the panels, it is important to clean them.

Selection of solar water pump

Sold separately are the solar panels which power the water pumps. the manufacturers of solar panels provide a table that explains how many amps, watts, and volts of power are required to generate the preferred water flow. when you have selected the proper type of solar pump, use the graph to estimate the accurate wattage of the panels. in order to calculate the number of panels and pumps that would be needed, you must know how many gallons per day or gallons per minute you wish to pump.

Solar electric power is a reliable and economical option for powering remote water pumps due to its reliability and economics.  solar pumps are popular among cattle ranchers throughout the world.  the water sources they use are spread over vast areas of rangeland, where there is no public power and where refuelling and maintenance of their generators are high.

A solar system is an economic solution if your main source of water is more than a quarter mile from utility power.  it is established by rural electric cooperatives across the country. these cooperatives promote the use of solar pumps, since new power lines are prohibitively expensive.

Investment of solar pump: good or bad

The fact that solar pumps and irrigation systems have become much more affordable in recent years is important to note when it comes to their costs. By 2025, solar PV will generate fifty nine percent less electricity than it does today, according to a new report from the International Renewable Energy Agency.

Return on investment is also influenced by price. How solar water pumps compare with other forms of energy is a key aspect determining their economic viability.

Difference between Diesel Pump & Solar Pump

A diesel pump generally has low initial investment costs, but also requires high operation and maintenance costs, not to mention its negative effects on the environment and the ecology. The cost of a solar water pump is higher, but it requires less maintenance and operation.

The solar water pumping system is definitely recommended if you live in a region with a lot of sun and groundwater. However, you will save money and gain many benefits in the long run by having an up-and-running system in no time, with clean water and lower maintenance costs.

Selection of Quality Solar Panel

Solar photovoltaic panels with a higher efficiency will produce more power per amount of light energy hitting the cell, requiring much less surface area to produce the energy needed.

Generally speaking, today’s solar panels provide energy efficiency ratings of between 11 and 15 percent, which is the amount of solar energy that becomes usable electricity.

The solar energy technology field is continually improving, and modern panels can provide more than enough energy to meet the needs of the majority of commercial and residential institutions.

Photovoltaic technology is continuously being improved by researchers. Multi junction cells are tuned to capture different frequencies of light on the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling scientists to achieve a record efficiency of 40 percent. Despite the fact that these are the most efficient solar cells achieved thus far, they are not yet accessible to the general public.

You may want to choose a more efficient solar panel if you have a small roof and limited space. While these panels may be more expensive because of their higher efficiency, they will still meet your energy needs.

On the other hand, if your home is larger, you might be able to reduce installation costs by using less efficient and less expensive panels for your energy needs. You can choose the best solar panel for your installation by considering both the overall cost and the kilowatt production.  

Merits of Solar Pump

Less Fuel

Powered by solar panels, solar water pumps operate. You will receive all the energy you need from the sun after you obtain the panel. The advantage of this is that you do not have to constantly buy fuel like you do with fossil fuel pumps. This can significantly increase your farm irrigation costs. You are also able to save time and energy by using free solar energy instead of manual irrigation.

Low Labor

Irrigating your crops with Solar Water Pumps can be very labor-intensive and time-consuming. Your solar pump does all the work for you once you connect it to your chosen irrigation method.

Compared to fossil fuel pumps, solar pumps require less labour and maintenance. When your crops are in need of water, you won’t need to travel to the petrol station when your tank runs out of fuel. Secondly, solar pumps, especially those with a good warranty period, won’t let you down, whereas fossil fuel pumps require regular maintenance and servicing.

Solar pumps that are not submerged in water are especially easy to maintain because they are not submerged in water. 

Renewable Energy

Solar Water Pumps use renewable energy and are sustainable. Solar Water Pumps do not emit harmful pollutants, preserving the environment. Compared to fossil fuel pumps, these cause a lot of pollution both by releasing fumes into the air and spilling fuel onto your land.

Climate change is making rainfall unpredictable, and agriculture in the tropics will be more difficult as a result. To combat the problem and keep up with the changes, agriculture needs to find new, sustainable practices. Now there is an option of using a solar pump in irrigation.

Low Cost

You are likely to use electric energy from your solar system to meet some of your energy needs. A solar system’s size determines how much you save on your electricity bill. The solar pump drive can be connected to the mains electricity less frequently when your system is more expansive, so you can store and pump more water at the same time.


Solar pumping systems also have the advantage that you do not have to be present for them to work. They are equipped with solar pumps that can run automatically. If you plan to install the off-grid water pumping system in a remote location, this feature is invaluable. This controller is more than just an on or off switch. When the sun is strong in the sky, the solar water pump inverters start up automatically. When the sun becomes weak in the sky, the inverters stop working.

Easy to install

In principle, it does not require any connections to a main water supply in order to function. It does not require any complicated plumbing or electrical work to operate effectively. As a result, a solar-powered water pump can be installed anywhere there is enough sunlight. These reasons make it popular with rural and outlying property owners who cannot afford complex plumbing or electrical systems. 

Mobile homes, RVs, boats, and other outbuildings often utilize solar pumps as off-grid remote power sources. Consumers seeking ways to reduce their carbon footprint find its simplicity so appealing.

Demerits of Solar Pump

Weather Dependent

Solar panels require sunlight to function properly. It is possible that your solar water pump will not function in the early morning or late evening when you want to irrigate.

However, you can reduce this disadvantage with a bit of planning.  Getting a water tank is one of the best things you can do. Your solar pump should be used during the hottest time of the day to pump water into your water tank. When you need to irrigate your crops, you will have water accessible via gravity feed.

It is a good idea to store water during sunny days. Solar pumps rely on the sun’s energy. Due to the lack of sunlight on a daily basis, it is difficult to receive adequate amounts of Sunlight. This is why it is recommended to store water in a tank during sunny days. When the sun does not shine for some days, you can use the stored water for your daily needs.

High Investment on first time

Farmers have expressed concern about the upfront costs of solar water pumps, since you have to purchase the water pump and panels at the same time. Despite this, solar pumps are the most economical option for irrigation over the long term due to its benefits, including no ongoing fuel costs, long pump life and low labor and maintenance costs.

Uses of Solar Water Pump

The idea of solar water pumping systems in an age when the world is rapidly moving to solar power can significantly aid and accelerate the development of agriculture in African countries and many other remote areas of poverty. In many regions today, solar-powered irrigation is widely used.

Most importantly, solar energy might be the most cost-effective way for farmers to generate energy, especially for those living without electricity grids or with insufficient infrastructure around their homes. As a consequence, solar water pumps are becoming increasingly popular in agriculture.

It is a virtuous circle to utilize solar irrigation, since when it shines, it provides the irrigation system with water, and in turn feeds the crops, which require water in sunny weather. Therefore, an enormous amount of energy is released at the optimal moment.

There are a lot of uses for mechanical pumps today. For example, they are commonly used to pump water from wells, filter aquarium water, and aerate ponds. The main purpose of water pumps is to exchange fluids such as water.


Solar energy will continue to bombard the planet for at least another 4 to 5 billion years, so harnessing the power of the sun for electricity makes sense for those seeking cleaner energies.

Solar technology may seem like a great idea for cutting down on your monthly energy expenses, but the cost of installing solar energy may make you wonder if it is really worth it.

If upgrading to a solar energy system is right for your business or home, a variety of factors determine whether panel placement, geographic location, roof design, temperature, and amount of shading are important.

Problem & Solutions

Why you should consider for Solar Pump?

A major cause of water shortages has been unpredictability of rains and long, continuous power cuts. Additionally, it increases the operational cost of operating water pumps on diesel generators to irrigate fields in rural and remote areas due to spiraling fuel prices. Water pump systems powered by solar energy are the ideal solution to all problems pertaining to water in rural areas.

Solar water pumps are a low-maintenance; cost-effective alternative to electric water pumps because they reduce the need to run generators on fuel, while boosting productivity and saving time and money simultaneously.

Where you can place a Solar Pump?

You should install solar panels in a sunny location free of shade.  It does not matter the altitude, but the height off the ground will determine how well you can keep them clear of snow.

For optimum solar gain, particularly in the short winter days, the panels should be angled optimally.  You should point your panels to true south if your site is in the northern hemisphere.  In the southern hemisphere, you should point them to true north.  

You should consult a declination map before setting up your structure in many locations since magnetic south and true south may differ quite a bit.

To capture the sun’s rays and to shed rain and snow, the solar panels should be tiled upward from horizontal.  Several studies have shown that facing solar panels true south at a tilt angle equal to your latitude relative to horizontal position provides the best year-round power output.

Can you use direct Sunlight to power up the Solar Pump?

Electricity can be generated from any renewable resource, including wind and solar power.  The solar electric cells convert sunlight into DC electricity to power DC appliances directly, to store electricity for later use when the sun is not shining, or to invert into AC electricity to power AC appliances.

Pumps used in solar wells are usually powered by the sun while it is shining.   There are no batteries to store electricity in these wells.  The tanks and cisterns act as storage.  You don’t need to pump water during the night or during cloudy days if the pump can pump water fast enough and your cistern is large enough.

Does a Solar pump work when the days are foggy or cloudy?

 Solar water pumps use solar power to run their motors, so they will not work on cloudy or foggy days unless they are connected to a hybrid power supply. Unless you consult your solar water pump specialists, you should not connect your pump to an alternative power source.

The design of a solar water system always includes a tank or many tanks to accommodate cloudy or foggy days.

The tank functions as a kind of battery because, during the sunny days, it stores water that you can later use in cloudy or foggy conditions.

FAQs on Solar Water Pump

Who invented Solar Panel?

A solar panel was created by Charles Fritts in 1881. It was described by Fritts as continuous, constant, and being able to sustain a considerable amount of power, not only by exposure to sunlight, but also by exposure to dim, diffused daylight. However, compare these solar panels to coal-fired power plants, and they were very inefficient.

How can you store Solar Energy?

A solar energy storage system can technically be implemented as pumped hydro systems or molten salt energy storage technologies, but these options require a lot of physical space, materials, and moving parts. This approach is not practical for storing energy in homes.

What is the maximum depth of Solar Pump?


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