In this article, we will learn the basic parts of a car along with the part name, list, and diagram. If you own a car, it is better to have basic knowledge of all parts of your car. Suppose, you are driving and suddenly your car wheel got punctured. So, what will you do? There are two options: (1) call your insurance partner (2) take out the punctured wheel and fit the standby wheel. What do you think? In my opinion, it is easy to change the wheel by yourself. If you know where to put water for the radiator cooling or where to put the engine oil or brake oil or how to check battery health, isn’t it nice! The key to maintaining a vehicle is regular maintenance. You don’t have to be an expert to learn about car parts and become a better driver with the information. Let’s explore all parts of car in brief:
Car Parts Names & List
Before starting the explanation of car parts, let’s see the name of each part in a car. The list is as follows:
|Transmission||Catalytic Converter||Air Conditioner|
|Ignition System||Windshield||Water Pump|
|Tire or Wheel||Braking System||Air bags|
|Axle||Tail Pipe||Ignition Coil|
|Electrical System||Power Train||Sun Visor|
|Cooling System||Fuel Gauge||Mass Airflow Sensor|
|Car Body||License Plate||Bluetooth|
|Lubrication System||Trip Meter||Oil Cooler|
|Suspension System||Rev Counter||Wiper Motor|
|Tail Light||Field Winding|
|Car Hood||Pinion Gear|
|Fuel Tank||Overrunning Clutch Starter|
|Shock Absorber||Gear Reduction Starter|
|Chasis||Camera & Parking Sensors|
Diagram of Car Parts
Let’s see a simple diagram for car parts:
Now, we will discuss a brief overview of all parts of car for basic understanding
1# Parts of Car: Engine
- Power is provided to the automobile by the engine, which is a power generator or power plant. The pistons in most automobile engines are driven by the explosive power of air and gasoline. Located at the end of the pistons is a crankshaft to which they are attached. An automobile’s wheels turn due to the rotation of its crankshaft.
- Wankel engines, rotary valve engines, and rotating combustion engines are other types of engines found in automobiles. As well as drawing in air and fuel, the rotary valve engine compresses and burns the mixture.
2# Car Part: Transmission
Transmissions are gearboxes filled with gears and gear trains that use the torque from the engine to change gears and power the vehicle. The transmission is primarily responsible for varying the torque applied by the engine to the wheels. In order to accomplish this, the gearing ratio between the engine output shaft and the drive shaft must be changed. By changing gears based on the car’s speed and accelerator input, the engine’s RPM is kept at an appropriate level. Your engine won’t be overloaded, and fuel consumption is reduced.
3# Car Parts: Battery
Electrical components in your car are powered by a battery. You have probably noticed that your car won’t start without battery power. A battery not only provides you with energy to start your car, but it also keeps your engine running by stabilizing the voltage. Battery life depends on a lot of things. As your car’s starter receives voltage from the battery, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.
The power for an electric vehicle comes directly from a big pack of batteries, unlike an internal combustion engine vehicle. Like your mobile phone’s lithium-ion battery, EVs use a pack of thousands of individual Li-ion cells instead of a single battery, similar to how a mobile phone does. Electricity is used to make chemical changes inside the car’s batteries during charging. Electricity is produced when these changes are reversed on the road. In most cases, batteries are covered by a five to eight-year warranty. According to current predictions, electric car batteries will last between 10 and 20 years. Some car batteries now have QR codes that you can scan with your smartphone to instantly access guides and other useful information.
4# Car Parts: Ignition System
An ignition system ignites the mixture of air and fuel inside the cylinder precisely at the right time. An electrical system is required to power engine accessories and the cranking motor that starts the engine. To burn all the air-fuel mixture in the engine, the ignition system provides either a high voltage spark or self-ignition in each cylinder at the appropriate time.
To deliver power, the fuel must be ignited in the combustion chamber. Spark-ignition engines use an electric spark to ignite the fuel. In compression-ignition engines, the ignition occurs the compression of the mixture to high pressure. There is no need for a separate ignition system since the ignition is caused by the compression of the mixture.
5# Car Part: Clutch
In manual transmissions, the engine must be temporarily disconnected from the wheels using a clutch. While changing gear ratios or stopping the vehicle, disengaging the power train from the engine is essential. In order to effectively convert combustion power produced by the engine into physical momentum, clutch is always mounted straight on the engine.
6# Car Part: Tire or Wheel
There are four spokes on every car’s wheel. Tires are black rubber parts that contain air and are attached to wheels. The wheels or tires of your car are attached to the vehicle. Tire rims are attached to the inner part of the tire. Rims and wheels are often used interchangeably, while decorative wheels are called rims. It is also possible to say tire when you mean wheel. It has essentially the same meaning.
7# Car Component: Axle
Wheels are mounted on axles, which are shafts. These axles provide the necessary drive to the road wheels. The driving wheels receive power from this axle. A differential connects the two halves of the differential. Wheels rotate along with the rear axles in most vehicles.
- This part of the suspension system is located at the front of the vehicle. The axle also absorbs shocks from uneven surfaces in addition to assisting with steering. Their main components are beams, track rods, stub axles, and swivel pins.
- Power is transmitted between the differential and the driving wheels through the rear axle. Half shafts connect the two halves of the rear axle, which are connected by a differential.
8# Car Part: Electrical System
All the engine accessories are powered by the engine’s electrical system. Batteries, alternators, starting motors, ignition coils, and heaters are the main components of the electrical system.
9# Cooling System
A combustion engine increases its temperature when fuel and air burn inside the cylinder. Engine performance and engine part life are directly affected by the increase in temperature. Engine temperatures are kept at an efficient level by the cooling system. Overheating and overcooling are prevented by the system regardless of driving conditions.
10# Car Body
A vehicle’s bodywork provides accommodations for the driver and passengers, as well as adequate weather protection. A car’s type and cost determine its level of comfort. In the beginning, automobile bodies were little more than platforms with seats attached. Slowly, a roof and windows were added, and it eventually became a closed compartment. Modern automobile bodies are made from sheet steel formed in giant punch presses into the required shape. To ensure a light, rattle-free unit, the majority of the body components are welded together. The style of an automobile can also be considered when classifying an automobile.
11# Parts of a Car: Lubrication System
There are many moving parts in an engine that wear out over time as they rub against each other. Oil circulates between moving parts of the engine to prevent metal-to-metal contact, which leads to wear. By lubricating parts, friction can be reduced, reducing power loss due to friction. Reducing friction and preventing engine wear, a lubrication system is necessary. Engine temperatures must be kept within safe limits by a cooling system. A fuel system is responsible for providing the engine with the right amount of air and fuel. Lubricants also serve as coolants and sealants to prevent leaks. Lastly, lubricant on the cylinder walls improves the engine’s compression by helping the rings seal.
Power received from the propeller shaft is split between the differential and the rear axle shaft. When the vehicle takes a bend or falls into a ditch, then the rear wheels can be driven at different speeds.
13# Suspension System
As the wheels move up and down, the suspension system absorbs vibrations caused by irregularities in the road surface. The suspension system of a vehicle is made up of springs, linkages, and shock absorbers. There are two types of suspension systems: rigid and independent. An axle with rigid beams connects the road springs to the rigid system. Commercial vehicles typically use it in their front axles and all types of vehicles in their rear axles. There is no rigid axle in the independent system. When the wheels move vertically, there is no reaction between them. Most small cars use the independent system.
14# Car Parts: Drive Shaft
Drive shafts connect gearboxes and differential units. A universal joint is located at each end of the driveshaft. Four-wheel-drive vehicles, however, require drive shafts to transmit power to the front and rear wheels. Therefore, four-wheel drive vehicles have two drive shafts. There are two for the front two wheels and two for the back two wheels.
Excess heat from the engine is removed by a radiator. In addition to a liquid coolant, hoses for circulation, a fan, and a thermostat to monitor the coolant temperature, it is part of the engine’s cooling system. To absorb excess engine heat, the coolant travels through the radiator hoses and back to the radiator. As the hot liquid passes through thin metal fins on the radiator, the heat from the coolant is released to the outside air. Through the car’s grille, cool air flows into the radiator, and when you’re idling in traffic, the cooling system’s fan blows air to help reduce the temperature of the heated coolant and extract the hot air.
A headlight illuminates the road ahead by attaching to the front of the vehicle. The term headlamp is often used interchangeably with headlight, but in the most precise sense, headlamp refers to the actual device, while headlight refers to the beam of light it produces.
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As a result of the disparity between daytime and night-time traffic fatalities, headlamp performance has steadily improved throughout the automobile age.
Over the bumper of the rear of the car, tail lights are mounted. When the vehicle is reversing, they are red, with accompanying white lights. In the dark, tail lights let other drivers know you’re there so you can travel safely. A directional lamp is typically mounted near the left and right front and rear corners of a vehicle, and sometimes on the sides or on the side mirrors of a vehicle, and is activated by the driver.
18# Car Hood
Car hoods, also called bonnets in other countries, are hinged covers that cover front-engine vehicles’ engines. In order to repair and maintain the engine, it provides access to it. The hood is typically held down by a concealed latch. Hood pins can be used to hold the hood down on vehicles with aftermarket hoods and on race cars. The hood of a car may also feature a hood scoop, wiper jets, power bulge, or hood ornament. Steel and aluminium are the most common materials for car hoods.
19# Fuel Tank
Typically, your car’s fuel tank is located under the rear or middle of the vehicle. A fuel pump replacement is the most common reason for removing it; however, there are other reasons too. During non-use, a small hole sealed with a gas cap allows the tank to be filled from the outside. Several steps follow before the gas reaches the engine. Gasoline is pumped into the fuel lines by the pump. Hard metal fuel lines consist in most vehicles which can run the fuel from tank to engine.
20# Shock Absorber
Your vehicle’s springs and suspension are controlled by shock absorbers, which act like hydraulic pumps. The shock absorber does more than smooth out bumps and vibrations; it ensures that the vehicle’s tires remain in contact with the road surface at all times, which results in safe and effective braking and steering.
21# Steering System
Vehicle direction is changed by the steering system. Every steering mechanism must be precise and easy to handle, and the front wheels should return to their straight-ahead position after a turn. This system uses steering gear to increase steering effort provided by the driver. A car with this system steers very easily since the driver doesn’t have to exert much effort. In addition to curved roads, busy traffic roads also require steering. Turning left or right is possible with the steering system. Modern steering wheels also include features such as volume control, cruise control, and audio system selection. It is even possible to have an electrically heated steering wheel.
22# Car Parts: Trunk
Most sedans, coupes, and convertibles have a trunk where cargo or luggage can be stored. North Americans tend to use trunks, while English-speaking countries tend to use boots. Most cars have a trunk located at the rear. Occasionally, vehicles with an engine in the center of the rear of the vehicle have a trunk in the front. Two trunk compartments have been available in some models.
The gear controls whether a vehicle moves forward, reverses, or remains in neutral. The gear on a manual transmission car is actually a stick shift. An automobile’s transmission lever, also known as a gear stick, gearshift, or shifter, is a metal lever connected to the transmission. In an automatic transmission, a similar lever is known as a gear selector, whereas the gear stick refers to a manual transmission’s shift lever. To disengage the engine from the drive-train and wheels, the left foot is usually used to depress the clutch pedal while changing gears.
An automobile’s chassis consists of its frame, suspension system, axles, and wheels. It is possible to use a conventional chassis or a unit construction frame. Traditionally, the chassis is the main structural component of a vehicle. The chassis supports a vehicle’s engine and its body. It is constructed of steel members that form square or box shapes that are strong enough to support the weight of the body and other components.
Usually, the final shape of an automobile frame is formed by welding or riveting several members together. Rubber pads mount the engine to the frame, absorbing vibrations and damping them. Passengers are protected from discomfort caused by shock by vibration absorption and damping. Frames are supported by springs on wheel axles.
26# Catalytic Converter
By catalyzing a redox reaction, a catalytic converter reduces the amount of toxic gases in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines fueled by petrol or diesel, with lean-burn engines, and sometimes kerosene heaters and stoves, typically use catalytic converters.
Located at the bottom of your vehicle’s rear, mufflers are part of your vehicle’s exhaust system. Noise and emissions from vehicles are reduced when they are installed.
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Designed to protect against the heat and chemicals released by the exhaust system, they are made of steel and coated with aluminium. Engine pistons and valves generate loud sounds, which are dissipated by mufflers.
Windscreens provide visibility and provide protection for occupants while protecting from the elements. In most cases, laminated safety glass is used for windshields, a type of treated glass composed of two curved sheets of glass with a plastic layer laminated between them for safety. A windshield provides a window with an aerodynamic shape towards the front of a vehicle for the protection of the occupants from wind and flying debris, such as dust, insects, and rocks. Screening out harmful ultraviolet radiation can be achieved by applying a UV coating. Due to the laminated safety glass used in most automobile windshields, this usually isn’t necessary.
Using a windscreen wiper or windshield wiper, a vehicle’s operator can better see what’s ahead by removing rain, snow, ice, washer fluid, water, & debris. A wiper is usually a legal requirement on almost all motor vehicles, including cars, trucks, buses, train locomotives, and watercraft with cabins.
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Wipers generally consist of a metal arm with a pivoting end and a rubber blade attached to the other end. Some vehicles use pneumatic power instead of an electric motor to power the arm.
30# Braking System
In order to slow down or stop a moving vehicle, brakes are required. Passengers and passersby on roads depend on the braking system for safety. Hydraulic or mechanical braking systems are available. In today’s world, hydraulic braking systems account for 95 percent of all brakes.
31# Tail Pipe
Your car’s exhaust system includes a tail pipe. An exhaust pipe is designed to release exhaust from a vehicle into the air, like a chimney on a house. With brackets attached to the rear end of the car, exhaust pipes connect to the muffler. When rear-end collisions occur, brackets fail, seals fail, and exhaust pipes corrode, they are susceptible to damage.
Car wheels receive power from the engine through the power-train. Among its components are the clutch, the transmission, the driveshaft, the differential, and the rear axle.
33# Fuel Gauge
Fuel gauges measure the amount of fuel in a vehicle. In order to measure the amount of fuel, this device is equipped with a sensing or sending unit. Fuel is measured outside the tank using the information from the sensing unit. Your gas tank’s fuel level is represented by the lines on the gas gauge. An eight can be found anywhere between two lines. This means you have 5/8 gallons of gasoline in your tank if the needle is between ½ and ¾.
34# License Plate
There is a blue and white sign on the license plate in the picture. The license plate serves as a means of identification for every car. A lot of bumper stickers are also on this car. Your car can be decorated with these decorations.
35# Trip Meter
Vehicles, such as bicycles and cars, use trip meters to measure their distance travelled. You should see the current ‘overall mileage’ on the vehicle when you push it again. This is most likely the trip odometer showing the mileage for trip X. The mileage travelled for trip Y should appear when you push the button there near the speedometer. Odometers are usually marked with a small rectangle containing five or six numbers. In most cases, it can be found near the speedometer. You may have a digital dashboard if your vehicle is newer. A physical, mechanical set of numbers will be found on an older or less luxurious vehicle.
36# Temperature Gauge
It measures the temperature of your engine’s coolant using the temperature gauge in your vehicle. Your engine’s coolant temperature can be checked with this gauge to determine whether it’s cold, normal, or overheating. Your vehicle’s dashboard contains this important dial. The temperature gauge needle should be somewhere between the hot and cold indicators when the engine is running and the coolant is doing its job. It is normal for a vehicle’s temperature reading to differ from one to another, so don’t be alarmed if yours differs.
37# Rev Counter
In motors or other machines, a tachometer measures the rotation speed of shafts or disks. Most devices display revolutions per minute on an analog dial, but digital displays are becoming more common. An engine’s rev counter simply displays the number of revolutions the crankshaft makes per minute.
Using the commutator, an electrical connection is made between the brushes and the motor windings. In the absence of any contact between them, they are completely separated from one another. There is a complete insulating layer between them. The commutator of the starter motor has numerous segments in order to increase the smoothness and the power of the motor.
Through the brushes, the battery current is made available to the helical windings that are used to spin the motor. It is important that the brushes are positioned in such a way that they are in contact with the commutator. When a starter is being rebuilt, they are replaced as part of the rebuilding process. In this section of the motor, the major components are the brush and spring assembly, the commutator, the bearing, the armature, and the conductor coils.
40# Starter armature
A starter armature consists of several basic components. These components are the armature core, the windings around the core, the shaft around the core, and the commutator. It is the armature which is responsible for producing the speed and torque we require in order to achieve our goals. Among the parts that are found in the starter armature, there is a drive gear, rotor slots, a commutator segment, an armature coil, and other parts that contribute to its operation.
41# Field winding
A strong magnetic field must be present around the armature of the motor in order for it to function correctly. The magnetic field is created using the stationary field windings that are used to generate this magnetic field. It consists primarily of shunt field coils, one-turn series field coils, compensation windings, shunt field terminal blocks, commutating poles, and main poles. The coils in the shunt field winding section work together to create the actual windings in the shunt field.
42# Pinion gear
In order to start a vehicle, pinion gears are the primary power source. A pinion gear is normally attached to the starter drive in most cases because it is used to drive the starter. There is a pinion gear which is used to move the ring gear or the flywheel by means of this pinion gear. The pinion gear is normally engaged by a yoke which is attached to a shaft. As far as its component parts are concerned, a pinion gear is composed of a drive lever, a plunger, a ring gear, and a magnetic switch as its main components.
43# Overrunning Clutch Starter
Clutch starters with overrunning clutches have the main property of getting locked in a particular direction once the clutch is triggered. In accordance with the direction in which they are controlled, they are unlocked in the opposite direction from the way in which they were locked. In a smooth start of the engine, the Overrunning Clutch Starter immediately causes the pinion gear to work as soon as the engine is turned on as the engine begins to run smoothly.
44# Gear Reduction Starter
Gear Reduction Starters are used to increase the rotational force of the starting motor that is being used in the starting process. An additional gear is attached to the armature of the Gear Reduction Starter in order to increase the speed of the motor. In theory, the flywheel and armature have a gear ratio of 1:45. If the armature rotates 45 times, then the engine will rotate only once. Gear Reduction Starters provide an enormous amount of cranking torque when they are used.
During engine operation, the alternator keeps your car alive while the battery starts it up. While the car is idling or driving, the alternator powers most of its electronic components, including the headlights, the electric steering, the power windows, the windshield wipers, the heated seats, the dashboard instruments, and the radio.
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Direct current is supplied to all of them by the alternator. Your car battery is also charged by your alternator while you drive. Electrical energy is converted from mechanical energy by the alternator. A pulley attached to your alternator drives a drive belt when your engine is running. In the alternator, a set of magnets is spun around a coil by the pulley, which rotates the rotor shaft.
The speedometer is usually paired with an odometer, which records the distance travelled, as a device that indicates a vehicle’s speed. Speedometers or speed meters measure and display a vehicle’s instantaneous speed. From about 1910, they became standard equipment for all motor vehicles and became available as options in the early 20th century. A speedometer for another vehicle has a different name and uses a different means of sensing speed. This is the pit log for a boat. Airspeed indicators are found on aircraft.
When you are lost trying to find a location, it is not an everyday occurrence. There are a lot of us who admit to not remembering the way around because not everyone is the same. GPS navigators are more than just luxury items for them. As smart-phones’ computing power continues to grow and batteries can’t keep up, by the time you’re finished with your office, your phone has given up on you or is always close to doing so.
48# Camera & Parking Sensors
Our challenge to park our cars safely in parking lots is becoming even more challenging as parking spaces become increasingly crowded. We have saved a lot of money and time by installing parking sensors and cameras. We believe such features shouldn’t be limited to certain car users, but some cars come equipped with parking sensors and parking cameras right off the factory.
49# Sound System
You can rely on the sound system when you’re frustrated with outside noise like traffic, engine sounds, and even wind. Oftentimes, music cannot be put into words and can even remain silent for quite some time. Your audio system will provide you with awesome sound. Electric waves are converted into melodious sounds by car audio systems. A car audio system consists of three main components, namely a head unit, an amplifier, and speakers. Take a close look at the information below to get a better understanding of it.
50# Air Conditioner
Car owners in the South need their vehicle’s air conditioning to work properly. A vehicle’s air conditioning system can be either orifice tube or expansion valve based. You can also mix the two. It is important to know how each component in your car’s AC works if you want to understand how it operates. Compressors, condensers, evaporators, accumulators, and expansion valves are the basic components.
51# Timing Belt
There is no doubt that it plays an important and essential role in the car, but it is often overlooked. Timing belts connect crankshafts to camshafts in cars. It controls the engine’s valves’ opening and closing in a perfectly synchronized sequence at maximum efficiency. It is possible for an engine to fail catastrophically when a timing belt breaks, causing damage to the valves and pistons. Make sure its condition is being monitored. It is much more likely that a timing belt will break if it is replaced on schedule.
52# Water Pump
Coolant flows through the cylinder head, radiator, hoses, and cylinder block through the water pump, ensuring the engine operates at the optimum temperature. Also known as the engine cooling system’s heart, it is the central component of the system. Poorly designed water pumps can cause the engine to overheat. Factors like incorrect tolerances and poor materials can contribute to this problem. The water pump of your car needs to be replaced once it is damaged in order for it to function properly.
53# Car filters
Air filter, cabin air filter, oil filter, and fuel filter are the four main filters in a car. Each of these filters enables flows and captures impurities. The products you choose for your vehicle should always meet its specifications. The performance of incompatible parts will be inefficient as well as more likely to fail earlier. When you replace an oil, fuel, or hydraulic filter, you should always replace the corresponding fluid as well. Your vehicle’s brand and model will determine when and how you should change your oil and filters.
54# Air Bags
In a fraction of a second, the airbag system works with the pressure between the passenger and steering wheel. In low-velocity collisions, the airbag unit must also remain intact. All these constraints must be taken into account by the crash sensor that detects collisions and triggers the bag to inflate. Deflation occurs when N2 production stops and gas molecules escape the bag through vents. A soft cushion is created when the bag’s pressure decreases and deflates slightly. After two seconds of impact, the bag’s pressure reaches atmospheric levels.
55# Ignition Coil
Modern cars have individual ignition coils which supply high voltage to your engine’s spark plugs instead of the old-school distributor cap and rotor setup. It is possible for these coils to wear down over time, resulting in them being unable to perform the task at hand, resulting in misfires. You may want to consider replacing all your ignition coils at once, depending on availability and cost.
56# Sun Visor
Located just above the windscreen, a sun visor is an interior part of an automobile. Drivers and passengers are able to shade their eyes from the glare of sunlight with hinged flaps. The rear-view mirror is often mounted between the two sun visors on modern cars, one on the driver’s side and one on the passenger’s side. Sunlight entering through the windshield can be blocked by lowering each of the visors.
57# Mass Airflow Sensor
For your car’s fuel meter to work correctly, a mass air sensor measures how much air makes it into its intake. Inaccurate readings can be caused by dirt and dust contaminating the sensor over time. Alternatively, the sensor’s electronics may simply die. In either case, you’re dealing with the same running issues and warning lights as you would with an air leak.
Connecting devices such as your smart-phone and vehicle with Bluetooth uses radio waves instead of wires. The Bluetooth control module in your car receives and sends radio signals from your device to your car.
59# Oil Cooler
In cars that are subjected to higher levels of stress, oil coolers are used for both engine oil and transmission oil. Generally, sports cars have oil coolers to keep their engines cool under pressure, while many heavy vehicles such as trucks, vans, etc use transmission oil coolers to keep their gearboxes in good working order. You’re more likely to find leaks elsewhere before finding them in the cooler when it comes to these, here is always the concern of leakage with these.
Your starter may have died if you’re turning the key or pressing the start button and nothing happens. The starter is basically a powerful electric motor that turns your engine over, and history shows that they often fail at the worst possible time. The good news is that, in many cases, they are not too expensive or difficult to obtain.
61# Wiper Motor
You will find your wiper motor to be your best friend in a downpour. When it fails, it stops working just like any other electrical component. A motor that is about to fail may start making more noise than usual, giving you a heads-up. When your wiper motor stops working in a storm, there’s nothing worse than being out on the highway in a storm.
Vehicle cabins are heated with heater cores, which are radiator-like devices. The core, a heat exchanger between coolant and cabin air, passes hot coolant from the engine through a winding tube. A fan forces air past the fins attached to the core tubes, transferring heat to the passenger compartment as the air passes through.